When an airplane emergency experienced occurs in flight and communications still exist, the pilot-in-command of that aircraft is responsible for advising the appropriate Air Traffic Control (ATC) unit. It nominates the airfield and aviation emergency procedures' desired readiness/emergency response state. An emergency is when the safety of the aircraft or persons on board or on the ground is endangered for any reason.
An abnormal emergency is one in which it is no longer possible to continue the flight using routine procedures. Still, the safety of the aircraft onboard or on the ground is not in danger.
Emergency or abnormal aircraft situations may develop as a result of one or more factors within or outside an aircraft, for example:
· Fire on board the plane;
· Aircraft component failure or malfunction (e.g., landing gear malfunction, engine failure, or loss of pressurization);
· Shortage of fuel;
· Flight crew uncertain of position;
· Worsening weather;
· Pilot incapacitation;
· Aircraft damage;
· Illegal activity.
An emergency may result in it being impossible to continue the flight to the destination as planned, causing one or more of the following consequences:
· Loss of altitude;
· Diversion to a nearby airport;
· Forced landing.
The pilot, while training, gets teaching with practice of aviation emergency procedures and all the possible situations. Some examples of the types of airplane emergencies are:
· aircraft defects/malfunctions serious enough possibly to impede safe flight;
· dangerous goods incidents;
· sabotage of aviation-related equipment;
· weather change;
· unlawfully seized aircraft;
· signal or detector issues
· building fires; and
· natural disasters.